8.53 Crisis And Transformation In The Middle Ages

In Europe, in the 14th and 15th centuries, famine, plagues, demographic collapse, religious upheaval, and political instability ended what had been centuries of relative European stability.

Between 1315 and 1351, it is estimated that the Great Famine and Black Death reduced the population of Europe by half or more.

Politically revolts, civil wars, and clashes among nobles were common.

Religiously, the Western Schism eventually resulted in three separate lines of Popes claiming to be the true Pope, which greatly damaged the prestige of the office.

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